A contusion occurs when a broken blood vessel or capillary blood into the immediate area. Contusions are a type of hematoma, referring to any blood collection apart from the blood vessel. While the term hematoma may sound serious, it is a common bruise medical term.
Here we will focus on brain contusion, symptoms, and treatment.
What is a Brain Contusion?
Lacerations and cerebral contusions refer to structural brain contusion. Therefore, they are more severe than a concussion, which is a change in the level of consciousness or mental function produced by damage that does not bring about visible injury to the brain structures.
A concussion can result from a sudden and rapid (acceleration) movement of one’s brain against the skull after a shock. These can be severe blow to your head or the sudden (deceleration) stop that takes place when a moving head hits an object; for instance, when one’s head strikes the steering wheel or dashboard in a head-on collision with a car).
The brain might get damaged at the spot of a strike, and on the other side, it hits the skull from inside—contusions an increase in hours and days after the damage, affecting brain function.
Cerebral lacerations arise when a piece of bone or an object enters the skull (bringing about a skull fracture) and breaks the brain tissue.
Lacerations and contusions may lead to swelling or bleeding in the brain.
Lacerations and contusions may be minor and cause minimal injury to the brain, having few symptoms or symptoms of slight head damage. However, if the injuries are severe, people might experience signs of a serious head injury.
For instance, people are often unconscious for a short period (a few minutes or less) or prolonged. When people are awake, they are often confused, sleepy, agitated, or restless. They can also have problems with coordination or balance, seizures, or vomiting.
Brain contusion can affect remembering, hearing, thinking, moving, speaking, feeling, seeing, smell, and controlling emotions. A more serious injury results in swelling in the brain, which further damages brain tissue. A brain hernia can occur, sometimes cause a coma.
Brain Contusions Symptoms
Traumatic brain contusion might have far-reaching psychological and physical consequences. Some symptoms and signs can occur straightaway after the shocking event, although others can come forth weeks or days later.
Mild Traumatic Brain Contusions
Signs and symptoms of a minor traumatic brain Contusions can include:
Loss of balance or dizziness
Unconsciousness for some seconds or a few minutes.
Drowsiness or fatigue
Vomiting or nausea
Being in a state of confusion, stupor or disorientation without loss of consciousness
For instance, sensory problems ring in your ears, blurred vision, changes in the sense of smell, or a bad taste in the mouth.
Sensitivity to sound or light
Mental or Cognitive Symptoms
Mood swings or mood changes
Concentration or memory problems
Anxious or feeling depressed
Moderate to Serious Traumatic Brain Contusion
Moderate to serious traumatic brain contusions may include any of the symptoms of a minor injury, along with the following symptoms that can occur in the first hours or days after the head injury.
Loss of cognizance for a few minutes or hours
Persistent or worsening headache
Repeated nausea or vomiting
Seizures or convulsions
Dilation of the eyes’ pupils
Clear liquids coming from the ears or nose
Inability to wake up from sleep
Numbness or weakness in the toes and fingers
Loss of synchronization
Mental or Cognitive Symptoms
Coma and other consciousness disorders
Agitation, fighting spirit, or other infrequent behavior
Babies and young kids with brain contusion may not report headaches, confusion, sensory problems, and similar signs. In a kid with a traumatic brain contusion, you might notice the following:
Change in nursing or eating habits
Easy or unusual irritability
Inability to get comforted and persistent crying
Change incapability to concentrate
Sleeping habits changes
Depressed or sad mood
Lack of interest in much-loved activities or toys
Brain Contusion Treatment
Treatment of a brain contusion depends on both the severity and type of injury. If you are experiencing minor head damage, there are regularly no symptoms except pain at the injury site. In these instances, you might need to take acetaminophen to relieve the pain.
You should not take non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), like aspirin (Bayer) or ibuprofen (Advil). These may make bleeding worse. In case you suffer an open cut, the doctor may utilize stitches or staples to patch it up. Then they cover it using a bandage.
Even when your brain injury seems minor, keep an eye on your condition to ensure it does not get worse. It is not true that you should not go to sleep after injuring your brain. But you must wake up every couple of hours to see if there are any fresh signs. You should see your doctor again if you develop new or deteriorating symptoms.
You might need to get hospitalized once you have a severe brain contusion. The treatment you get in the hospital depends on the diagnosis. Treatment for serious brain contusion may include:
If you have had a serious brain contusion, you might need to take antiepileptic drugs. You are at risk for seizure attacks in the week after you experience the injury.
You can receive diuretics in case your injury has put pressure on your brain. Diuretics make you secrete more fluid. This can take some of the pressure off.
In case your injury is very bad, you may need medicine to induce a coma. This might be a suitable treatment if you have broken blood vessels. When you are in a coma, the brain does not need as many nutrients and oxygen as it usually does.
You may need emergency surgery to stop further damage to the brain. For instance, your doctor might need surgery to:
- Restore your skull
- Remove a bruise
- Put some pressure on your skull
In case you have had a severe brain contusion, you will most likely require rehabilitation to restore the brain’s full function. The kind of rehabilitation you receive will depend on the functionality you have lost due to the injury. People with brain injuries often require help to regain speech and mobility.
How well you do depends on the seriousness of your brain contusion. Most individuals with minor head injuries do not experience lasting consequences. Individuals who have suffered severe head injuries can experience permanent modifications in their physical abilities, personality, and thinking ability.
Severe brain contusions in childhood can be of particular concern. The developing brain is widely believed to be vulnerable to injury. Research is ongoing on this problem. Your doctor and healthcare crew will help you to make sure you recover to the best of your ability.